PARKINSON'S DISEASE IN ELDERLY - ETIOPATHOGENIC, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC
ResumoIntroduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to injury in the basal ganglia that affects about 1% of the population over 65 years. The aim of this study was to review the main etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of PD in the elderly. Literature Review: We performed a systematic literature review on the SciELO database, in the period 2002-2013.The etiology of PD is unclear, but several factors such as genetic, atherosclerosis, excessive accumulation of oxygen free radicals, viral infections, head trauma, use of antipsychotic medications and environmental factors may trigger the disease. In rare cases an abrupt onset of symptoms, and in these cases occurs initially resting tremor in about 50% of patients, decreasing or disappearing when starting the movement preferentially affecting the limbs. There is an impairment of the ability of the central nervous system in signal processing vestibular, visual and proprioceptive responsible for maintaining body balance, diminishing the ability to modify the adaptive reflexes. Symptoms such as dizziness and imbalance are part of these sensory changes. Commitments physical, mental, social and economic associated with signs and symptoms of PD can cause isolation of the individual, and limited participation in social life. The drugs most commonly used are cholinergic, they contain levodopa, which in the nervous system, is converted to dopamine by the enzyme dopa-decarboxylase. Besides pharmacological treatment, it is necessary accompaniment of other professionals, such as physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists, and endless tracking a neurologist, forming a multidisciplinary treatment, which will help the carriers to maintain a better quality of life. Conclusion: Thus, it is necessary to have a greater knowledge about the disease and its effects on day to day parkinsonian under a bias interdisciplinary, since the limitations posture, breathing and phonation are interconnected by complex neuromuscular connections, which requires an interdisciplinary and comprehensive team.