Introduction: The human nervous system is not completely developed at birth, and this maturation process occurs during life and especially during childhood. This review aims to focus on the range of negative consequences that trauma can bring to the formation of each person. Literature review: The term trauma from the Greek root, means "wound" and became extremely complex when associated with the child's psychological development. For Freud, the trauma is able to break through the protective barriers of the ego and cause consequences for the entire psychic life. In childhood, trauma can be physical and psychological violence, neglect and abandonment. Studies suggest that traumatic stress affects the biochemistry necessary for the correct development of the nervous system, such that there is the excessive release of glucocorticoids, corticotropin releasing hormone and glutamate. This biochemistry scenario causes inhibition of neurogenesis and long-term decline of serotonin receptors. A study with 44 children victims of abuse showed a change 7-8% smaller in intracranial and brain volume, reduction in the corpus callosum and greater concentration of cerebrospinal fluid in the prefrontal cortex among the victims.The main consequences of this process are described in the literature psychiatric problems, such as bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, emotional problems, eating disorders, anxiety, personality disorders and suicide. It is important to know that a survey revealed that 94% of patients with schizophrenia interviewed in the study reported some form of childhood abuse. Conclusion: Even with some limitations in this type of study (small samples, lack of neuropsychological instruments standards), there is a consensus on the onset of psychopathology due to abuses and the need for more research to efficiently handle the damage in the abused victims.