THE USE OF STEM CELLS IN ALZHEIMER'S TRE ATMENT

JÉSSICA MELCHIOR, LUYDDY PIRES, EMERSON HENKLAIN FERRUZZI

Resumo


Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in individuals over 60
years. It is characterized by the presence in the brain of extracellular senile plaques. This change
provides progressive neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, resulting in severe brain atrophy and
cognitive deficits. The neurodegeneration occurs in the dentate gyrus and CA1 subregion of the
hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and association neocortex. Through the discovery that constitutive
neurogenesis persists in the adult mammalian brain, including brain regions affected by AD, the
hypothesis that the disease could be overcome or ameliorated is born. The adult neurogenesis process
involves the proliferation of resident stem cells and neural progenitor cells and their migration,
differentiation into mature neurons and functional integration into the neural network. There are two
areas of the brain of adult mammals (rodents, monkeys and humans) in which neurogenesis occurs:
subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral
ventricles. Objective: This study aims at the treatment of AD from neural, mesenchymal stem derived
from adipose tissue stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Materials and Methods: Systematic
review of current scientific literature from the PubMed and Scielo database. Discussion and Conclusion:
The stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), stem cells
derived from tissue such as bone marrow (BM), and stem cells derived from adipose tissue. Stem cells
derived from neuron have the potential to integrate neural networks of the brain. The cell
transplantation appear to increase levels of acetylcholine to improve memory and cognition in animal
model. In addition, the stem cells secrete neurotrophic factors to modulate neuroplasticity and
neurogenesis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were induced to differentiate into astrocytes or
neurons and their transplant was successful, causing enhancement of neuronal function. Another study
which were also transplanted ADSCs in the hippocampus of transgenic mice for AD, it was concluded
that the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells could stimulate neurogenesis in the brain of adult
rodents, as these cells secrete growth factors enhancing cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the
dentate gyrus. This facilitates the differentiation of new cells in the subventricular zone, causing to
facilitate functional recovery in mice by neurogenesis. When ADSCs were administered intravenously in
mice models, such cells were found in the brain within twelve days after injection. A new study made
use of isolated human cells of patients with AD. These cells were then used to model the disease
offering an insight into its abnormal function compared with non-diseased cells and also how they may
be vulnerable to environmental factors. The stem cell therapy not only has the potential to replace
damaged neurons but also has the capacity to generate new astrocytes. Studies confirm that treatment
with stem cells can be effective and safe, especially through the advancement of new research.


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