ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC – A LITERATURE REVIEW

KAROLINE BECKER PARABONI, MATHEUS TIMM AVILA, ELISABETE KONKIEWITZ

Resumo


Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a medical condition characterized
by a triad: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity. It is one of the most common neurobiological
disorders among children, which are the most affected, but it also manifests in adults. The etiology
is still unknown, but it is believed that is a multifactorial disease with hereditary component. The
diagnosis is basically clinical and the subject of this paper. The treatments include medicines,
behavior training, counseling and changes at school and/or at home. Objective: to perform a
systematic review about the ADHD diagnostic. Methods: a systematic review of the literature was
conducted in Pubmed, Scielo and UpToDate between 2010 and 2015, using the following keywords:
“ADHD”, “ADHD diagnostic”, “attention-deficit hyperactivity diagnostic”. Results: eight of the 51
initial articles were evaluated. There is a vast literature about the subject and our focus is on what
is news. Discussion and conclusion: ADHD diagnosis is basically clinical. A review of the following
criteria must be performed: - Inattention: difficulty paying attention to details or make mistakes out
of carelessness in school activities and work; difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities;
does not seem to listen when spoken to directly; do not follow instructions and fails to finish school,
domestic or professional duties tasks; difficulty organizing tasks and activities; prevent, or reluctant,
to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort; lose necessary things for tasks or activities;
be easily distracted and present forgetfulness in daily activities. - Hyperactivity: shake hands or feet
or fidget in his chair; leaving seat in classroom or in other situations where it is expected to remain
seated; running or climbing excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate; difficulty playing
or engaging in leisure activities quietly; it is often "on the go"; talk too much. -Impulsiveness: often
give hasty answers before questions have been completed; often find it difficult to wait their turn
and often interrupt or meddle in anothers subjects. From this assessment, must be present at least
six symptoms for people under 17 years old and 5 symptoms for those with more than 17 years. The
symptoms must be present before 17 years. They must occur frequently (at least per 6 months),
may be triggered by psychosocial factors, do not show periods of improvement and occur in several
places. In addition, they cause substantial impairment of the child's life, may blur in adolescence
and can be controlled in situations which are interesting in being socially coherent. Parents,
teachers and the pacient itself must be evaluated. Neurological examination, imaging and
psychological testing are also part of the investigation to rule out other diseases. From the diagnosis
the disease can be classified into three different subtypes: with predominance of inattention,
dominated by impulsiveness and hyperactivity and the mixed type. Not so far, it is a cheap diagnose
that can be performed by a basic attention physician, but is underdiagnosed even being such a
common disease.

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