MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS TREATMENT USING INTERFERON BETA: AN OVERALL REVIEW

JOÃO MARQUES RODRIGUES LEMOS, MOISÉS CELSO DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR, ISABELLA FERNANDES DE AZAMBUJA VEDOVATO

Resumo


Introduction: The Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a inflammatory process of autoimmune nature with genetic and environmental origin. This neurological disorder causes a self-destruction of the lipoprotein involved in the conduction of the nerve impulse: the myelin sheath. Material and Methods: The data were obtained at PubMed Central™ and refer to the English and Portuguese publications of the last five years, using the keywords multiple sclerosis, interferon beta and treatment. Results and Discussion: The MS diagnosis is clinical and its treatment is based in stop the remission of the attacks. The mechanism of action of IFN-? in MS is not all known yet. Like other cytokines, IFN-? binds to specific membrane receptors (type I IFN-? receptor), which activate transcription factors and the expression of different proteins. Conclusion: Considering that in Brazil, there are about 35 thousand people with Multiple Sclerosis, the study of new drugs and treatments are very important. This disease is treatable and the sooner the more effective the medication.
INTRODUCTION
The Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a inflammatory process of autoimmune nature with genetic and environmental origin. This neurological disorder causes a self-destruction of the lipoprotein involved in the conduction of the nerve impulse: the myelin sheath. The most common symptoms of this disease are mainly related to the demyelination process that causes tremor, fatigue, paresthesia, balance deficit and, in later stages, it can cause dysphagia, loss of visual acuity, paralysis of the lower and posterior limbs, cognitive deficits, dementia and others.
OBJECTIVE
To present an overall review about the use of interferon ? in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS The data were obtained at PubMed Central™ and refer to the English and Portuguese publications of the last five years, using the keywords multiple sclerosis, interferon beta and treatment. In this search, 6089 open-access articles were found in the database in question but only articles that fit the main objective of this review were selected.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The MS diagnosis is clinical and its treatment is based in stop the remission of the attacks, as there is no cure for the disease. Studies have shown that the use of ß-interferon in MS patients has been more effective than immunosuppressants and corticosteroids in reducing episodes and has shown satisfactory results in order to prevent the progression (CIT 1 E 3).
The mechanism of action of IFN-? in MS is not all known yet. Like other cytokines, IFN-? binds to specific membrane receptors (type I IFN-? receptor), which activate transcription factors and the expression of different proteins, such as interleukin 10, neopterin, ?2 microglobulin, protein MxA and 2,5'-oligoadenylate synthetase.
This cytokine also acts by antagonizing IFN-? synthesis, which is responsible for the activation of glial cells in the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) that promotes the cytotoxic effect of oligodendrocytes.
CONCLUSION
Considering that in Brazil, there are about 35 thousand people with Multiple Sclerosis, the study of new drugs and treatments are very important. This disease is treatable and the sooner the more effective the medication, so attention is needed in this area. Therefore, there is a great need for new studies in this area to improve the quality of life and the prognosis of patients suffering from this disorder.


Referências


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