POSSIBLE CHANGES IN CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH THE USE OF CANNABIS SP

WELBER SANCHES FERREIRA, GUSTAVO ROBERTO VILLAS BOAS

Resumo


Introduction: The Cannabis sp, also popularly known as marijuana, belongs to the botanical family Cannabaceae, but can be termed as cânhamo, bangue, diamba, pito, fininho among others. There are three different kinds of marijuana, distinguished by the plant growth habit, by morphological aspects, they are: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabisruderalis (Herman et al, 1986; Fürst 1994; SCHULTES et al., 2001. ). Marijuana can be considered one of the best known and consumed illicit drug worldwide. conducted studies on the consumption of this drug shows that 10% of people who consume the drug for the first time become daily drug user and 20-30% of individuals using the drug weekly. Data show that there was an increase of 30% in the early marijuana use among the population, compared to 20 years ago, and thus there was an early rise in the concentration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychoactive substance present in marijuana) (Hall et al., 1998; Castle et al., 2004). Currently the population does not give due attention to this drug, because in view of the population the effects of this drug are not harmful, but studies on the plant show that it has harmful effects on the body of their users, but they are not so obvious and visible as other drugs, and that one of the reasons that discredits public about the harmful effects of marijuana (Hall et al., 1998). However, in recent years there has been an increase in studies related to the harmful effects of marijuana in the body of the user, and one of the largest losses shown that drug is on the nerves system (SN) thus a plausible problem for mental health professionals (Jungerman et al., 2005). Studies show that marijuana can change directly or indirectly the cognitive effects of individuals who consume this drug when the user becomes chronic clearly show physical changes in users, changes such as deficits in verbal learning, short-term memory, the user's attention and executive functions (Hall et al., 1998; Castle et al., 2004). The longer the duration of drug consumption and earlier to be iníciodo drug use cógnitos the impacts are larger (Jungerman et al., 2005). Studies show the relationship between marijuana use with psychosis because marijuana is a risk factor for users because it offers psychoactive feelings during consumption of the plant. Data show that cannabis doubles the risk of psychosis and thus contributes directly in cases of psychosis of the population (CASTLE et al., 2004) .The marijuana shows changes in the SN, but more subtle than other drugs so as to heroin, alcohol, cocaínas, among others. A study neuroimaging techniques shows that individuals who are users of marijuana have subtle changes in the SN, showing that marijuana has neurotoxic effects (CRIPPAet al., 2005). Objective: To show through a literature review the actions of the nervous system of Cannabis sp. and their possible side effects. Methods: A literature review was conducted of scientific papers which dealt with the topic within the scientific approaches in the areas of neuroscience and neurobiology of Cannabissp, using as data base Pubmed (PublicMedlineor Publisher Medline), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), PsychINFO (American PsychologicalAssociation), Web of Science and textbooks Area of neurology. Results: Cannabis sp features over 400 natural chemicals, and of those 400 substances stand out 60 alkaloids, which are also known as cannabinoids. These cannabinoids are subdivided into psychoactive and non-psychoactive, among the psychoactive stand out from the delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-8-THC) and Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC), and among the non- psychoactive stand out canabidinol and canabiol. Thus it is understood that the adverse effects occurring in the user depend on the amount of THC ingested by the user, whereby the THC is the psychoactive substance in cannabis presenta, and that amount depends heavily on external factors such as climate, soil and storage (RIBEIRO, M., et al., 2005). According to Marcelo Ribeiro et al (2005) some individuals have noticeable symptoms in utilizaçãoda drug, showing behavioral, physical and psychological changes. Cannabis mechanism of action of sp, are not yet clarified completely, but studies show that endogenous substances of the human being produces a substance like substance present in cannabis, this substance is known as endocanabinol in which brought a great help to understand the drug mechanism of action (CARLINI et al., 2001). The endocannabinoid system is composed of natural cannabinoid receptors, receptors known as C1 and C2, both are coupled to G-proteins complex. These
receptors produce different actions within the central nervous systems C1 is found in the presynaptic nervous system, and is one of the main agents responsible for neurobehavioral effects caused by the drug, since the C2 it is found in the immune system, but a party may is found in neurons (SAITO et al., 2010). Was from 80 to 90 it was possible to reach a certain understanding of how the action of the drug works, was carried out the identification, isolation and cloning of specific cannabinoid receptors, receptors in which they are located in the CNS and peripheral system (SP ) receptors C1 and C2, respectively, there is also the identification of endogenous ligands of cannabinoids,JULIEN, 1997). In 1986 it was discovered that the chemical substance of cannabis,?-9-THC, acted as an antagonist in the enzyme adenylate cyclase (ACI), but this antagonistic action only occurred in the presence of a G-protein complex, in which shows that the ?-9-THCinteracts with receptors coupled to G-poteína (GROTENHERMEN, 2005). It is known that cannabinoid receptorC1 and C2are responsible for many biochemical and pharmacological effects of the cannabinoids, these receptors are abundant in brain and various parts of the front loin, parental lobe, brainstem and cerebellum (Hall et al., 1998). Most cannabinoid receptors is found in the basal ganglia cells, this has as a function the coordination of movements of the body, another abundant place of these receptors is the cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex, where the cerebellum is responsible to coordinate the body movement in response hippocampus in learning, memory and stress and cerebral cortex are responsible for the cognitive functions of the body (Joy et al., 2000). Cannabis shares on an individual depends not only on the act of using the drug, or "smoking", and depends also on external factors such as quality drugs and sensitivity of the wearer. So there is much difference in the effects of drugs among some users, while some may feel a sense of relaxation others may feel some tension, varies from person to person (CARLINI et al., 2001). There are several studies showing on cannabis actions on humans, some studies show that there is a cognitive dysfunction in users, after several hours of drug use, but there are also studies that show that there is damage for a few days after the use of drug and also studies on far more lasting damage that persist for more than a month after use of the drug, and so there is controversy about the damage so that pot may cause human (FANT, R V et al., 1998; Pope, H. L et al., 2001;. CURRAN, HV et al, 2002; N Solowij ., et al., 2002; BOLLA, K R et al, 2002).. To be some understanding of the effects of this drug in the central CNS, is simply not organize a specific literature on these effects because the theories and authors of ideas collide, because these studies reach different results for various types of exposure levels of cannabis, or also the exposure of other substances in the middle. According to Nadia Solowij (2010) for future understandings of these effects will be needed that can determine which parameters would result in an effect on the CNS over a range tasks and cognitive domains. however,thus there is a decrease in the production of cAMP, which triggers some reactions, such as the opening of potassium channels by decreasing the transmission of signals and closing calcium channels, which leads to decrease in the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonergic, cholinergic , glutamatergic and gABAergic, which is why the effects caused by marijuana. (Joy et al., 2000; Jungerman et al., 2005). In addition to biochemical changes may occur possible cognitive changes with the use of cannabis, studies show that the system has endocanabinol critical role in cognitive activities and when there is the management of external substances cannabinol, ie the chemicals plant as?-9-THC, this activity is altered, bringing tabém one cognitive deficits (Solowij, 2007). This possible cognitive impairment may occur by the interaction of the cannabinoid substance of the plant with the endocannabinoid receptors, and with this change the endocannabinoid system undergoes a differentiation causing this deficit(Solowij, 2010). But studies show that this deficit occurs in chronic users, not ruling out acute users, but the highest rate is in chronic users. These effects on cognition show get an increase when there is a use most often the drug, the dose, the age of onset of drug use and prolonged use of cannabis(Solowij, 2007). There is recognition that chronic cannabis users have the same cognitive deficits that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia(Solowij, 2007), it can be said that the endocannabinoid system that directly and indirectly linked to cognitive deficits, however studies of cannabinol actions with endocannabinoids and their actions with cognition are still scarce, requiring further study to ascertain higher probability of loss on cognition and have that confirmation of the deficit in cognition caused by drugs (PATTIJ et al, 2008;. REALINI et al., 2009). In addition to these changes studies show some changes on brain structure, but they are still few studies about these changes, some show little change in brain structure, others show that there is no change (JAGER et al., 2007, BLOCK et al ., 2000; TZILOS et al, 2005).. However some researchers have found changes in gray and white mass of the brain and also in parahipocampo region (Wilson et al., 2000; MATOCHIK et al., 2005). A long study by Nadia Solowij (2010) showed that in studies of brain differentiation between users and cannabis non-users are minimal, however there is the possibility to verify this difference only
when users are of continuous use, or chronic use and found that higher exposure doses of cannabis were present in the hippocampus region. A previous study carried out with one group showed a significant reduction in bilateral hippocampal volumes, reduction of 12%, and there was also a reduction in the amygdala, reduction of 7%, the study group consisted of adults with average usage about 20 of the drug, with continuous use. And users with continuous use for 10 years, a decrease in the hippocampus, such study was performed with the animal literature which were exposed to doses of drug required (SCALLET et al, 1987;. LAWSTON et al., 2000). The earlier use of more harmful drugs are its effects, studies show that users who started using the drug with minority (17 years), had a lower total brain volume, obtained lower gray substance and greater white matter as well as present a higher cerebral blood flow compared to users as later use (Wilson et al., 2000). But not all studies show the harmful effects of cannabis sp, there are reports that cannabis has been used as therapeutic activities, activities such as spasms in patients with multiple sclerosis controller and is also used as analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant, but studies of cannabis for that purpose are also scarce (HONÓRIO et al., 2006). Results and conclusion: With the data presented can not come to any conclusion, and the studies on the effects of cannabis sp rises CNS are very scarce, so should be more studies on this subject so that they can come to a certain conclusion because there are studies that show that there is damage for a few days after use of the drug and also studies on far more lasting damage that persist for more than a month after using the drug, and so there are many controversy and difficulty reaching conclusion about the damage that marijuana can cause to humans. anxiolytic and anticonvulsant, but studies of cannabis for that purpose are also scarce (HONÓRIO et al., 2006). Results and conclusion: With the data presented can not come to any conclusion, and the studies on the effects of cannabis sp rises CNS are very scarce, so should be more studies on this subject so that they can come to a certain conclusion because there are studies that show that there is damage for a few days after use of the drug and also studies on far more lasting damage that persist for more than a month after using the drug, and so there are many controversy and difficulty reaching conclusion about the damage that marijuana can cause to humans. anxiolytic and anticonvulsant, but studies of cannabis for that purpose are also scarce (HONÓRIO et al., 2006). Conclusion: With the data presented can not come to any conclusion, and the studies on the effects of cannabis sp rises CNS are very scarce, so should be more studies on this subject so that they can come to a certain conclusion because there are studies that show that there is damage for a few days after use of the drug and also studies on far more lasting damage that persist for more than a month after using the drug, and so there are many controversy and difficulty reaching conclusion about the damage that marijuana can cause to humans.


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