THE INTEGRATION OF DISABLED CHILDREN IN INFANT EDUCATION

TÂNIA MARIA FILIPU DE SOUZA

Resumo


Introduction: To think about education is to think about the process of constitution
of an inclusive society and goes beyond the institution of laws and decrees, as it
also undergoes a profound change in the behavior and attitudes of the people.
Recognizing, valuing and guaranteeing the right of access and participation of all
people to social and educational opportunities, regardless of the peculiarities and
differences of conditions, are emerging social needs. The history of childhood
evidences that the preoccupation with the child became present only from the
nineteenth century, both in Brazil and elsewhere in the world. Even childhood being
a social problem since the nineteenth century, this fact was not enough to make it a
problem of scientific investigation. Studies show that it was only in the early 1960s
that children come to be seen as a social being, assuming a central role in family
relations and society, becoming a subject worthy of respect, with characteristics
and needs of their own. In this sense, childhood is a cultural and biological concept,
and in this century (XXI), considerations about the principle of all childhood were
integrated into a notion of development, which came to understand the child as a
being whose growth is a succession of intellectual and emotional phases. Childhood
came to designate the first age of life: the age of need for care, education.
Education is a right of everyone and should start between 0 and 5 years, with
kindergarten, in kindergartens (0 to 3) and later in pre-school, from 4 to 5 years.
Brazilian education has been more closely debated as to how schools will act with
the recent process of inclusion in education. Children's education is a concrete
reality that brings together the human heterogeneities that are reflected in the
coexistence, considering the capacities, interests, motivations and personal
experiences that sing the way of being, acting and producing of each individual.
Objective: To analyze the inclusion process of children with disabilities in Early
Childhood Education. Method: We used the bibliographic method of a qualitative
research. Result: When it comes to inclusion in early childhood education, the
challenge becomes greater, since diversity encompasses broad characteristics that
require a special educational base and different intervention actions. In 2008, the
Ministry of Education / Secretariat for Special Education presented the National
Policy on Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education, with the
purpose of constructing public policies promoting a quality education for all
students, guaranteeing the offer of education especially from early childhood
education to higher education, as well as specialized educational services, teacher
training and family and community participation, among other situations. Therefore,
the specialized educational service is assured at all levels of education, from
kindergarten to university, preferably in the regular network, focused on the specific
educational needs that require the elaboration and organization of pedagogical
activities that help in the formation and in the autonomy of the students. In this
context, it is important to clarify that specialized care does not replace schooling, it
only serves as a complement or supplement to the training of students and must be
articulated with the proposal of common teaching and, therefore, requires the
training of teachers specializing in special education that provide care in common
schools or specialized institutions. There is a great difficulty to think differently in
the classroom space, especially with the existing differences. In this sense,
according to Mendes (2008, p.145,146) a curricular practice guided by
homogenizing principles, there is an intrinsic conception that the learning process is
the same and occurs in the same way for all subjects. The principle of
homogenization makes it possible to construct teaching practices centered on the
collective: a single valid teaching model, a standard of the tasks to be requested, an
invariant model of didactic sequences. This model leads us to think of a practice
that is always focused on the collective, so that the factors that produce difficulties
in doing it in children's education, and that has in this space the child with a
disability, hinder the organization of teaching work. Conclusion: Inclusive Special
Education in our country assumes, as a bilateral process, in which children with
disabilities are still excluded. Child education, in turn, seeks partnerships, thinking,
pondering problems, discussing solutions to make the opportunity for learning an
environment where teachers seek information and training. The inclusion of children
with disabilities in early childhood education is very recent. For this reason, the
discussions assume an emerging role in actions with other professionals, especially
health professionals, to articulate partnerships in the possibilities of "arrangements"
and "structures" organizational structure. We can say that this field of inclusion in
children's education is essentially interdisciplinary, as it articulates with health,
neuroscience, psychology and education, making possible new discoveries about
cognitive development, attention, motivation, emotion, memory and language,
among many others that are part of the teaching and learning process of children
with disabilities. In this way, in our analysis we can consider that the looks should
turn to the diversity, to the possibilities of learning, considering the knowledge
produced by the children who have a disability. Learning must involve processes of
teaching and learning in order to meet the social, historical and cultural dimension
from a relational perspective, which allowed us to discuss.


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