TAI CHI CHUAN HELPS WITH THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC DISEASES

KAI HSUN HUNG, CÂNDIDA APARECIDA LEITA, ÂNGELA MIDORI KURAOKA OLIVEIRA

Resumo


Introduction: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), psychiatric diseases are the main diseases of the 21st century, becoming a strong threat in the health of people and society. Health is obtained by the balance between the body, mind and psychosomatic factors (CALDWELL et al, 2011; LAVRETSKY et al, 2011; NEDELJKOVIC et al, 2012; IRWIN et al, 2014; TAYLOR-PILIAE et al, 2010). Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a beneficial practice that can help with the treatment of psychiatric diseases, by using the long, smooth and deep breathing (BAXTER., FRANCIS, 2013; CHOU et al, 2004). TCC is part of the disciplines (Liu-Yi) to cultivate one’s character and self-awareness, cited by Confucio. Thus, one can achieve a “supreme kind-hearted consciousness”, it’s a mean to enter into Tian Ren He Yi, where humanity and nature are syntonized, bringing about unity and harmony (TENG & LIEN, 2016).. Objectives: This review had as main focus analyze the studies of TCC applied to psychiatric diseases and their effects. Material and method: Was made a systematic review on the literature, using the Pubmed database and the keywords TCC and separated by types of pathology, only from the period 2001 to 2017. Were included all articles related to the theme in the psychiatric area and selected only articles of clinical studies. Were deleted articles unrelated to the topic. Results and discussion: Using the keyword Tai Chi Chuan, 1072 articles were found, 280 of articles of clinical trial, within 41 articles attended inclusion, which are articles related to psychiatric disease. The papers were classified by the type of Pathology treated with TCC, making the individual analysis. Later, grouped by: (well-being, self-esteem, stress, anxiety and depression), abstinence, schizophrenia, sleep quality, (cognition, dementia and self-concept). The TCC improves (100%), 2 article significant (OH., KIM, 2016; LI et al, 2013), in the case of abstinence from smoking (nicotine) decreasing the dependency, increasing serotonin in the blood and for the heroin treatment, this operates on physical, physiological and psychological causes (OH., KIM, 2016; LI et al, 2013). The TCC improves (87.5%) in insomnia, are 7 articles significant( CALDWELL et al, 2011; CARROLL et al, 2015; CHAN et al, 2016; IRWIN et al ,2008; IRWIN et al, 2014; LI et al, 2004; NGUYEN., KRUSE, 2012), and 1 article not returned, (CALDWELL et al, 2009). The insomnia, the sympathetic nervous system takes this disturbance and causes inflammation on cells, it also increases monocyte and leukocytes, which would be an influence of sleep (IRWIN et al 2008 e IRWIN et al, 2014). The TCC improves (75%), are 3 articles significant(CHEN et al, 2007; ROBINS et al, 2006), and 1 article not returned(LEE et al, 2010), in the case of well being, (100%) in self esteem, are 3 articles significant(BAXTER,FRANCIS,2013; LEE et al, 2007; MUSTIAN et al, 2004), (80%) depression, are 4 articles significant(CHOU et al, 2004; FIELD et al, 2013; LAVRETSKY et al, 2011; REDWINE et al, 2012), and 1 article not returned(CHENG et al, 2012), (100%) in anxiety and stress, are 4 articles significant(CHO,
2008; HSU et al, 2016; ROSADO-PÉREZ et al, 2013; TSAI et al, 2003) . It also decrease ?-amylase cortisol elements liable to affect the emotions (NEDELJKOVIC et al, 2012; ROSADO-PÉREZ et al, 2013). The TCC improved 100% in all cases on the treatment of schizophrenia, are 2 articles significant (KANG et al, 2016; HO et al, 2016), where it decreases the aggressive behaviour, conflict and discrimination, manifested by schizophrenia (KANG et al 2016 and HO et al 2016). The TCC, has good results in activities of cognition and behavior, dementia and self-concept(100%) are 9 articles significant (BAO., JIN et al, 2015; CHENG et al, 2014; HUANG et al,2011; LAM et al, 2011; LI et al, 2014; LIU., TSUI, 2014; MORTIMER et al, 2012; SUNGKARAT et al, 2016; TAYLOR-PILIAE et al, 2010). Increases brain volume, (MORTIMER et al, 2012) motor skills, balance, creating a affinity between the participants (CHANG et al, 2011; LI et al, 2013). Conclusion: The research presents various studies about Tai Chi Chuan as a Martial Art, complementary in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, that generally benefited most of the cases (95.25%). Therefore, it is plausible to conclude TCC contributes to one’s quality of life and tranquility; yet, to say TCC contributes to other aspects of health requires further investigation.


Referências


References 1. BAO, X et al. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents.. Int J Psychol, n. 50, v.2, 2015. 2. BAXTER, A. J.P et al. Positive impact of Tai Chi Chuan participation on biopsychosocial quality of life compared to exercise and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional survey .J Complement Integr Med, 2013. 3. CALDWELL, K et al. Changes in mindfulness; well-being; and sleep quality in college students through taijiquan courses: a cohort control study. J Altern Complement Med, n.17, v.10, 2011. 4. CALDWELL, K et al. Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students. J Bodyw Mov Ther, n.13, v.2, 2009. 5. FIELD, T et al. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression; anxiety and sleep disturbances. Complement Ther Clin Pract, n. 19, v.1, 2013. 6. CARROLL, J.E et al. Improved sleep quality in older adults with insomnia reduces biomarkers of disease risk: pilot results from a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, n.12, v.55, 2015. 7. CHAN, A.W et al. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging, v.11, 2016. 8. CHANG, J.Y et al. The effect of tai chi on cognition in elders with cognitive impairment. Medsurg Nurs, n.20, v.2, 2011. 9. CHEN, K.M et al. Well-being of institutionalized elders after Yang-style Tai Chi practice. J Clin Nurs, n.16 v.5, 2007. 10. CHENG, S.T et al. Can leisure activities slow dementia progression in nursing home residents? A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, n. 22, v.1, 2014. 11. CHENG, S.T et al. Leisure activities alleviate depressive symptoms in nursing home residents with very mild or mild dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, n. 20, v.10, 2012. 12. CHO, K.L. Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with major depression: the role of social support. Med Sport Sci, v.52, 2008. 13. CHOU, K.L et al. Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with depressive disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psiquiatria, n.19, v.11, 2004. 14. HO, R.T et al. A randomized controlled trial on the psychophysiological effects of physical exercise and Tai-chi in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, n.171, v.1-3, 2016. 15. HSU, C.Y et al. Seated T'ai Chi in Older Taiwanese People Using Wheelchairs: A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Mood States and Self-Efficacy. J Altern Complement Med Med, n. 22, v. 12, 2016. 16. HUANG, T.T et al. Reducing the fear of falling among community-dwelling elderly adults through cognitive-behavioural strategies and intense Tai Chi exercise: a randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs, n.67, v.5, 2011. 17. IRWIN, M.R et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Tai Chi for late life insomnia and inflammatory risk: a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial. Sleep, n. 37, v.9, 2014. 18. IRWIN, M.R et al. Improving sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep complaints: A

randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih. Sleep, n.31, v.8, 2008. 19. KANG, R et al. Effect of Community-Based Social Skills Training and Tai-Chi Exercise on Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Randomized, One-Year Study. Psicopatologia, n. 49, v.5, 2016. 20. LAM, L.C et al. Interim follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing Chinese style mind body (Tai Chi) and stretching exercises on cognitive function in subjects at risk of progressive cognitive decline. Int J Geriatr Psiquiatria, n. 26, v.7, 2011. 21. LAVRETSKY, H et al. Complementary use of tai chi chih augments escitalopram treatment of geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, n.19, v.10, 2011. 22. LEE, L.Y et al. The psychosocial effect of Tai Chi on nursing home residents. J Clin Nurs, n.19, v.7-8, 2010. 23. LEE, L.Y et al. Effect of Tai Chi on state self-esteem and health-related quality of life in older Chinese residential care home residents.J Clin Nurs, n. 16, v.8, 2007. 24. LI F;et al. Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, n.58, v.3,2014. 25. LI, D.X et al. Effects of Tai Chi on the protracted abstinence syndrome: a time trial analysis. Am J Chin Med, n.41, v.1, 2013. 26. LI, F et al. Tai chi and self-rated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc, n.52, v.6, 2004. 27. LIU, Y.W et al. A randomized trial comparing Tai Chi with and without cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to reduce fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, n. 59, v.2, 2014. 28. MORTIMER, J.A et al. Changes in brain volume and cognition in a randomized trial of exercise and social interaction in a community-based sample of non-demented Chinese elders. J Alzheimers Dis, n. 30, v.4, 2012. 29. MUSTIAN, K.M et al. Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors. Apoiar o câncer de cuidados, n. 12, v.12, 2004. 30. NEDELJKOVIC, M et al. Taiji practice attenuates psychobiological stress reactivity--a randomized controlled trial in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, n.37, v.8, 2012. 31. NGUYEN, M.H et al. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance; sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clin Interv Aging, n. 185, v.7, 2012. 32. OH, C.U et al. Effects of T'ai Chi on Serotonin, Nicotine Dependency, Depression, and Anger in Hospitalized Alcohol-Dependent Patients. J Altern Complement Med Med, n.22, v.12, 2016. 33. PALUMBO, M.V et al. Tai Chi for older nurses: a workplace wellness pilot study. Appl Nurs Res, n.25, v.1, 2012. 34. REDWINE, L.S et al. A pilot study exploring the effects of a 12-week t'ai chi intervention on somatic symptoms of depression in patients with heart failure. J Altern Complement Med, n.18, v.8, 2012.

ROBINS, J.L et al. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease. Appl Nurs Res, n.19, v.1, 2006. 36. ROSADO-PÉREZ, J et al. Effect of Tai Chi versus walking on oxidative stress in Mexican older adults. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013. 37. IRWIN, M.R et al. Tai chi; cellular inflammation; and transcriptome dynamics in breast cancer survivors with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr, n.2014, v.50, 2014. 38. SUNGKARAT, S et al. Effects of Tai Chi on Cognition and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Geriatr Soc, n. 65, v. 4, 2017. 39. TAYLOR-PILIAE, R.E et al. Effects of Tai Chi and Western exercise on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy community-dwelling older adults. J Aging Phys Act, n.18 , v.3, 2010. 40. TENG, S.C et al. What Confucius practiced is good for your mind: Examining the effect of a contemplative practice in Confucian tradition on executive functions. Consciente Cogn, n. 11, v. 42, 2016. 41. TSAI, J.C et al. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial.. J Altern Complement Med Med, n.9, v.5, 2003.


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.