PREDITORES PSICOLÓGICOS, REAÇÕES E O PROCESSO DE INTERVENÇÃO PSICOLÓGICA EM ATLETAS LESIONADOS

Victor Barbosa Ribeiro, Sandra Regina Garijo de Oliveira, Flávia Gonçalves da Silva

Resumo


Atualmente novas alternativas e intervenções têm sido buscadas para o enfrentamento de lesões sofridas pelos atletas. Esta revisão teve por objetivo avaliar os estudos publicados entre os anos de 2002 a 2012 sobre os traços psicológicos preditores de lesão, a reação frente à lesão, as principais técnicas de intervenção psicológica, a abordagem multidisciplinar e o apoio social. Foram selecionadas 41 publicações, sendo que 10 retratavam o tema traços psicológicos preditores de lesão, 15 a reação frente à lesão e 19 identificavam as principais técnicas de intervenção psicológica, abordagem multidisciplinar e o apoio social.  Encontrou-se que dois dos principais traços psicológicos preditores de lesão são a exacerbação do estresse e da ansiedade frente aos eventos internos e externos ao ambiente esportivo. Além disso, diante da lesão, o atleta tende a ter uma negação inicial da lesão e com o tempo de acordo com o suporte recebido e sua personalidade pode agir de diferentes formas na recuperação. Algumas técnicas têm sido descritas como relevantes para a intervenção psicológica, entretanto, ainda é necessária uma melhor capacitação nesta área para os profissionais envolvidos na recuperação, bem como a aproximação e interação destes com psicólogos do esporte. © Cien. Cogn. 2013; Vol. 18 (1): 070-088.

 

Palavras-chave: lesões atléticas, psicologia, apoio social, estresse psicológico, intervenção.

 

Abstract

Nowadays new alternatives and interventions are being searched to deal with injuries suffered by athletes.  This review study purposed to evaluate the studies published between the years 2002 until 2012 about the psychological predictors traces of injuries, the reaction facing a injury, the main techniques of psychological interventions, the multidisciplinary approach and the social support.  It was selected 41 publications, 10 that approach the psychological predictors’ traces theme, 15 the reaction facing an injury and 19 about the main techniques of psychological intervention, multidisciplinary approach and social support.  It was found that the most predictors of injuries are the stress and anxiety exacerbation dealing with internal and external events in the sportive environment.  Besides, facing an injury, the athlete leans to have an initial denial and with time accordingly with the support received and its personality, he/she can act in different ways in recuperation period.  Some techniques are described as relevant to psychological intervention, however it is necessary a better preparation of the professionals involved in the recuperation, as a greater proximity and interaction between athletes and sport psychologists. © Cien. Cogn. 2013; Vol. 18 (1): 070-088.

Keywords: athletic injuries, psychology, support social, stress psychological, intervention.

 


Palavras-chave


lesões atléticas; psicologia; apoio social; estresse psicológico; intervenção

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Referências


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Ciências & Cognição
A/C Prof. Dr. Alfred Sholl Franco

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Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
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